Mardi 26 juillet 2011

Mix a small quantity of sugar

Muriate of lime. To prepare this salt, saturate with pure white marble any quantity of muriatic acid, diluted with two or three parts of water. Then evaporate the solution and set it away to crystalize.
Obs. This salt absorbs water with such extreme avidity, as to effect its own solution in a short time when exposed to the air. ,
It it composed of nearly equal parts of acid and base, and
25 per cent of water.
Remark. These salts have lately been called Chlorates and Hyper Oxymuriates We shall call them Chlorates.
461. The Chlorates give out very pure oxygen gas when submitted to heat, and turn to muriates. They Chlorate of Potash. This salt is prepared by passing chlorine gas through a solution of caustic potash.
Exp. I. Grind together in a moi tar four ounces of common salt and one ounce and a half of black oxide of manganese, and put' the mixture into a stoppered retort. Connect with the retort a balloon, as in fig. 33. and from the balloon let a bent glass tube pass into a three necked bottle, filled with a strong solution of canstic potash, so as nearly to reach the bottom. After every thing is arranged as in the figure, and the junctures are made tight, pour into the retort through the safety tube two ounces of sulphuric acid, diluted with au equal "quantity of water. Then apply to the retort the gentle' heat of a lamp. Or,
Exp. 2 Introduce into the retort four ounces of muriatic acid, and two ounces of finely powdered black oxide of manganese, and proceed exactly as above.
Obs. The Chlorine gas which is formed by either of the above experiments passes into the solution, where it combines with the potash. When this is saturated, the gas will pass off at the bent tube. To obtain the salt evaporate the solution gently and on cooling it will deposit small shining crystals. These are chlorate of potash. The first product oniy must be reserved for use, as after this, the crystals are merely muriate of potash.
Caution. Care must be taken not to let any of the Chlorine escape into the room. Violent coughing, and even death has been produced by breathing this gas.
263. When chlorate of potash is submitted to distillation in a coated glass retort, it first fuses, and on a further increase of temperature yields oxygen gas of great purity.
264. This salt alone has no power in discharging colours, but by the addition of a little sulphuric acid, the chlorine is set free, and vegetable colours are destroyed by it.
465. When mixed or rubbed with inflammable substances it effects their combustion with more or less rapidity.
Exp. 1. Rub two grains of chlorate of potash in a moi tar, and add one grain of sulphur. Mix them accurately by gen* tie trilure, and having collected the mixlure to one part of the mortar, press the pestle down upon it suddenly and forcibly. A loud detonation will ensue.
-466. If the same mixture be wrapped in some strong paper, and then struck with a hammer, a still louder report will be produced.
2. Mix ia a mortar five grains of the salt with half the quantity of powdered charcoal. On rubbing the mixture strongly with a pestle it will inflame.
3. Mix a small quantity of sugar with half its weight of the salt, and on the mixture pour a little strong sulphuric acid. A sudden and vehement inflammation will be produced.


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